Children understand that the amount of something remains the same even if its appearance changes (Woolfolk, A., 2004).

A child in the preoperational stage would not be able to perform the famous Piagetian conservation problem of liquid and volume, because he or she has not yet developed reversible thinking "thinking backward, from the end to the beginning" (Woolfolk, A., 33).

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The acquisition of meta-cognition (thinking about thinking) is also a defining factor of those people in formal operations.

Based on Piaget's proposed stages and ability levels at each, certain teaching strategies have been offered for teaching in the Piagetian school of thought.

Students are encouraged to perform experiments and testing of objects.

By performing experiments and solving problems, students develop logical and analytical thinking skills (Woolfolk, A., 2004).

Methods and approaches to teaching have been greatly influenced by the research of Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky.

Both have contributed to the field of education by offering explanations for children's cognitive learning styles and abilities.

People in the formal operations stage utilize many strategies and resources for problem solving.

They have developed complex thinking and hypothetical thinking skills.

While Piaget and Vygotsky may differ on how they view cognitive development in children, both offer educators good suggestions on how teach certain material in a developmentally appropriate manner.

Piaget proposed that cognitive development from infant to young adult occurs in four universal and consecutive stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operations, and formal operations (Woolfolk, A., 2004).

The child is also able to classify items by focusing on a certain aspect and grouping them accordingly (Woolfolk, A., 2004).