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During the Ottoman Empire period, the Black Sea was called either Bahr-e Siyah or Karadeniz, both meaning "the Black Sea" in the Ottoman Turkish.
According to the same explanation and reasoning, it is therefore considered to be impossible for the Scythians (who principally roamed in what is present-day Ukraine and Russia) to have given the designation as they lived to the north of the sea, and it would be therefore a southern antipodal body of water for them.
As the name could have only been given by a people that were well aware of both the northern "black/dark" and southern "red" seas, it is therefore considered probable that it was given its name by the Achaemenids (550–330 BC).).
These waters separate Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Western Asia.
The Black Sea is also connected to the Sea of Azov by the Strait of Kerch. Due to these variations in the water level in the basin, the surrounding shelf and associated aprons have sometimes been land.
Mediterranean water flows into the Black Sea as part of a two-way hydrological exchange.
The Black Sea outflow is cooler and less saline, and floats over the warm, more saline Mediterranean inflow – as a result of differences in density caused by differences in salinity – leading to a significant anoxic layer well below the surface waters.The ongoing collision between the Eurasian and African plates and westward escape of the Anatolian block along the North Anatolian Fault and East Anatolian Faults dictates the current tectonic regime, It is these geological mechanisms which, in the long term, have caused the periodic isolations of the Black Sea from the rest of the global ocean system.The modern basin is divided into two sub-basins by a convexity extending south from the Crimean Peninsula.He also thought that the Black Sea was called "inhospitable" before Greek colonization because it was difficult to navigate, and because its shores were inhabited by savage tribes.(7.3.6) The name was changed to "hospitable" after the Milesians had colonized the southern shoreline, the Pontus, making it part of Greek civilization.In Greater Bundahishn, a sacred Zoroastrian text written in Middle Persian the Black Sea is called Siyābun.Old Georgian sources of 9th–14th centuries ("The Georgian Chronicles") were using the name "Speris Zğua" (სპერის ზღუა), which means "The Sea of Speri", after the name of Kartvelian tribe Speris or Saspers, now in Turkey.