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Riggi passed away in 2008, but he had been involved in the intensive scientific examination of the Shroud of Turin by the STURP group in 1978, and on April 21, 1988 was the man who cut from the Shroud the thin 7 x 1 cm sliver of linen that was used for carbon dating.
A linen produced in 1260 AD would have retained about 37% of its vanillin in 1978...
The Holland cloth, and all other medieval linens gave the test [i.e.
The spectra produce a profile of the sample, a distinctive molecular fingerprint that can be used to identify its components.
Raman Spectroscopy uses the light scattered off of a sample as opposed to the light absorbed by a sample.
In 1532, there was a fire in the church in Chambery, France, where the Shroud was being kept.
Part of the metal storage case melted and fell on the cloth, leaving burns, and efforts to extinguish the fire left water stains. In 1534, nuns sewed patches over the fire-damaged areas and attached a full-size support cloth to the back of the Shroud. The Shroud was moved to Turin in 1578, where it remains to this day.
tested positive]." "The lignin on shroud samples and on samples from the Dead Sea scrolls does not give the test [i.e.
tests negative]." "Because the shroud and other very old linens do not give the vanillin test [i.e.
The radiocarbon date was thus not valid for determining the true age of the shroud." "As part of the Shroud of Turin research project (STURP), I took 32 adhesive-tape samples from all areas of the shroud and associated textiles in 1978." "It enabled direct chemical testing on recovered linen fibers and particulates".
"If the shroud had been produced between 12 AD, as indicated by the radiocarbon analyses, lignin should be easy to detect.
Ray Rogers, retired Fellow with the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory and lead chemist with the original science team STURP (the 1978 Shroud of Turin Research Project, involving approximately 35 scientists directly examining the Shroud for five days), has shown conclusively that the sample cut from The Shroud of Turin in 1988 was taken from an area of the cloth that was re-woven during the middle ages.