In contrast, plough agriculture is associated with private property and marriage tends to be monogamous, to keep the property within the nuclear family.

Close family are the preferred marriage partners so as to keep property within the group. Sylvia Yanagisko argues, for example, that there are a number of societies including parts of Japan, Southern Italy, and China, that do not support Goody's claim that dowry is a form of female inheritance of male property.

In sparsely populated regions where shifting cultivation takes place, most of the work is done by women. Boserup further associates shifting horticulture with the practice of polygamy, and hence bridewealth is paid as a compensation to her family for the loss of her labour.

Similarly, dower is the property settled on the bride herself, by the groom at the time of marriage, and which remains under her ownership and control.

Dowry is an ancient custom, and its existence may well predate records of it.

This would initially seem to discount Goody's model, except that in North India, the joint family is composed of the groom's parents, his married brothers and unmarried sisters, and their third generation children.

This joint family controlled this part of the dowry, which they used to help fund their own daughter/sister's dowries.

The distances to New York and San Fransisco were probably added in 1941 when the cantonment became a major base for the American support for the China-Burma-India (CBI) Theatre. Now it has been converted into Star Shopping Centre. Top left hand corner in the photo is where now Regal Chowk stands.

The distance to Warsaw may have been added after Partition when a large number of Polish pilots served in the Pakistan Air Force. The cinema is advertising Hands Up, which was a silent Western film released in America in 1917. Saint Andrew’s Church is also visible in the photo.

But when the parents die, and the joint family partitions, this jointly held wealth was then divided among the married sons, such that ultimately, the bride's dowry given to the joint family returned to her and her husband as their "conjugal fund." Schlegel and Eloul expanded on Goody's model through further statistical analysis of the Ethnographic atlas.

They argue that a major factor in determining the type of marriage transaction is the type of property controlled by the household.

The city was under Kalhora rulers and later under Talpur rulers of Sindh. Named after the Sindhi philanthropist Dayaram Jethmal, whose two family members contributed towards its cost, the building was constructed in the neoclassical, or ‘Italian architectural style’. The magnificent building of the Eduljee Dinshaw Charitable Dispensary, located in Saddar next to Khyber Hotel near the intersection of Preedy Street and Raja Ghazanfar Ali Road (Somerset Street), is a classical landmark of Karachi.