While it may be difficult to establish a dating and provenance for a particular binding and its repairs, the investigator with an inclination for forensics may find traces of the original production, the creative reuse and recycling of older materials, wear and damage in the course of use, travel or environmental exposure, and subsequent conservation treatments and repairs.

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At the same time letters and archives preserve innumerable memories of human relationships, both official and personal.

The approaching end of all this has been announced for the past thirty years, as if it were a sort of millennium bug (‘the end of the book as we know it’). Far less durable mediums are increasingly taking over the role of paper, and from a triumphant material it is suddenly becoming something of an endangered species.

Muslims around the world agree that Islam is the one true faith that leads to salvation.

Many Muslims also say it is their religious duty to convert others to Islam.

Date: Thursday, 10 September 2015, (Registration required)Venue: Thomas Gray Room, Pembroke College Cambridge, Trumpington St, Cambridge, UK Most of what we know about the libraries which flourished in the Mediaeval Islamic world is based on literary accounts since the collections themselves almost completely disappeared.

They have been largely understood as their Western equivalents although the place of the written word in the Islamic tradition should induce us to approach their history with more care.

A variety of repairs and replacements are attested in the Islamic bookmaking tradition.

These range from the scarcely discernible restoration treatments executed by a skilled practitioner to the folk mends executed by an individual owner.

Folk mends and replacements employing recycled material may be less attested in the specialist literature, but they are certainly observed in extant specimens.