Rice production requires complex irrigation and collective farming, which led to the development of a strong sense of community in Vietnamese villages. This was the beginning of a long Chinese occupation and domination.

Despite more than a millennium of Chinese occupation, the Vietnamese retained a strong and separate identity. were led by women), but none found lasting success until the tenth century Emperor Dinh Bo Linh called this new state Dai Co Viet (the Kingdom of the Watchful Hawk) and won Chinese recognition of independence with regular payments of tribute.

Throughout French occupation there were pockets of Vietnamese resistance, but the efforts were not unified.

The Vietnam Conflict In 1941, Ho Chi Minh formed the Vietminh in northern Vietnam to fight both the French and Japanese for control of Vietnam.

During this period, the French backed emperor, Bao Dai, recanted allegiance from France to Japan and proclaimed independence. They escaped with the help of the US, and were mostly young, well educated, English speaking, urban dwellers. military bases until sponsors were found to help them resettle.

Colonialism The Portuguese were the first Europeans to sail to Vietnam in the mid-sixteenth century.

Later the Dutch and English established small trading centers.

In 1627 a French missionary adapted the Vietnamese language to the Roman alphabet to create a writing style called .

By the mid-nineteenth century, the French had gained control of Vietnam.

The initial years of this period saw the establishment of unusually liberal legal codes that protected ordinary people from mandarins and allowed women to own property.

A lack of political cohesiveness between the north and south is not a recent development.

Their descendants formed the diverse mountainous tribes. The first Vietnamese believed they were the descendants of a dragon and an angel.

They brought their economy based in rice farming with them from China. when Trieu Da, a defiant Chinese general, established his own empire of Nam Viet, which included northern Vietnam. C., the Han dynasty expanded and incorporated Nam Viet into the Chinese empire as the province of Giao Chi.

Contributor(s): Binh Duong, Program Manager, Division of Refugee Assistance at the Department of Social and Health Services, Olympia, WA; Many Vietnamese community members. Vietnam occupies the eastern coast of the Southeast Asian peninsula.