After the Babylonian captivity and the Persian conquest of Babylonia, Cyrus II of Persia allowed the Jews to return to Judea and rebuild the Temple.

The construction was finished in 516 BCE or 430 BCE.

Herod the Great added what Josephus called the Second Wall somewhere in the area between today's Jaffa Gate and Temple Mount.

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Then, Artaxerxes I or possibly Darius II allowed Ezra and Nehemiah to return and rebuild the city's walls and to govern Judea, which was ruled as Yehud province under the Persians.

During the Second Temple period, especially during the Hasmonean period, the city walls were expanded and renovated, constituting what Josephus calls the First Wall.

In 1033, most of the walls constructed by Eudocia were destroyed by an earthquake.

They had to be rebuilt by the Fatimids, who left out the southernmost parts that had been previously included: Mount Zion with its churches, and the southeastern hill (the City of David) with the Jewish neighborhoods which stood south of the Temple Mount.

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Solomon, David's son, built the First Temple on the hilltop rising right above the city he had inherited, the Temple Mount, and then extended the city walls in order to protect the temple.

During the First Temple period the city walls were extended to include the northwest hill as well, i.e.

the area where today's Jewish and Armenian Quarter (Jerusalem) Quarters are located.