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discovery of radioactive dating-41

For instance, Electron capture (EC) is a process in which decay follows the capture by the nucleus of an orbital electron.

It is similar to positron decay in that the nucleus transforms to a daughter of one lower atomic number.

In the latter case, gamma emission may occur as the excited states transform to lower energy states of the same nucleus.

(Alternatively to gamma emission, an excited nucleus may transform to a lower energy state by ejecting an electron from the cloud surrounding the nucleus.

An example of isomerism is found in the protactinium-234 nucleus of the uranium-238 decay chain: The letter During the 1930s new types of radioactivity were found among the artificial products of nuclear reactions: beta-plus decay, or positron emission, and electron capture.

In beta-plus decay an energetic positron is created and emitted, along with a neutrino, and the nucleus transforms to a daughter, lower by one in atomic number and the same in mass number.

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An example is the decay of the uranium daughter product thorium-234 into protactinium-234: In the above reaction for beta decay, photons and are without rest mass or charge.