Therefore, a description of how ENM chemical properties such as (1) hydrophobicity and hydropholicity, (2) material composition, (3) surface functionalization and charge, (4) dispersal state, and (5) adsorption of proteins on the surface determine ENM cellular uptake, intracellular biotransformation, and bioelimination or bioaccumulation, were included.

elucidating mechanism cellular uptake removal-46

Generally, most organic and inorganic ENMs cannot be described only in terms of chemical composition but also have to take into consideration of size, shape, and surface modification.

Moreover, their tunable compositions and structural features lead ENMs to undergo dynamic and subtle changes under biological conditions.

To this end, considerable knowledge generation and exploration is required to understand how material properties influence ENM uptake, transport and fate, as well as the biological consequences of these interactions at cellular level.

The toxicity mechanisms of different ENMs differ with nanosize/nanosurface which directly correlates to the physicochemical activities of ENMs exposure largely influences outcomes of the toxic response.

However, the increased number of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and their novel physicochemical properties pose a new challenge of understanding the full spectrum of their interactions at the nano/bio interface, including the potential to engage in hazardous interactions.

A comprehensive understanding of these interactions is required, including the physicochemical properties that control bioavailability and how this knowledge could be used for safer nanomaterial design.

When nanomaterials encounter cells, what do the cells see? The chemical properties at the nanomaterial surface play an important role in determining interactions at the nano-bio interface.

These surface properties also determine interactions with membranes, ions, organelles, nucleic acids etc, and thus are capable of influencing the structure and function of biomolecules and cells to affect homeostasis or induction of toxicity.

The fraction of NPs exocytosed was less for peptide-capped NPs as compared to citrate-capped ones.