In Europe, divorce laws differ from country to country, reflecting differing legal and cultural traditions.In some countries, particularly (but not only) in some former communist countries, divorce can be obtained only on one single general ground of "irretrievable breakdown of the marriage" (or a similar formulation).

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Note that "separation" does not necessarily mean separate residences – in some jurisdictions, living in the same household but leading a separate life (e.g., eating, sleeping, socializing, etc.

separately) is sufficient to constitute de facto separation; this is explicitly stated, e.g., in the family laws of Latvia.

The effect of a divorce is that both parties are free to marry again if a filing in an appellate court does not overturn the decision.

Contested divorces mean that one of several issues are required to be heard by a judge at trial level—this is more expensive, and the parties will have to pay for a lawyer's time and preparation.

Reasons for divorce vary, from sexual incompatibility or lack of independence for one or both spouses to a personality clash.

The Vatican City is an ecclesiastical state, which has no procedure for divorce.In 2011, in the US, the Coalition for Divorce Reform was established, describing itself as an organization "dedicated to supporting efforts to reduce unnecessary divorce and promote healthy marriages." In some jurisdictions, the courts will seldom apply principles of fault, but might willingly hold a party liable for a breach of a fiduciary duty to his or her spouse (for example, see Family Code Sections 7 of the California Family Code).Grounds for divorce differs from state to state in the U. Some states have no-fault divorce; some states require a declaration of fault on the part of one partner or both; some states allow either method.Countries that have relatively recently legalized divorce are Italy (1970), Portugal (1975), Brazil (1977), Spain (1981), Argentina (1987), Where it is seen as a contract, the refusal or inability of one spouse to perform the obligations stipulated in the contract may constitute a ground for divorce for the other spouse.In contrast, in some countries (such as Sweden, divorce is purely no fault.In most jurisdictions, a divorce must be certified (or ordered by a Judge) by a court of law to come into effect.