However, the connection to futuere has been disputed‍—‌Anatoly Liberman calls it a "coincidence" and writes that it is not likely to have been borrowed from the Low German precursors to fuck.

One reason that the word fuck is so hard to trace etymologically is that it was used far more extensively in common speech than in easily traceable written forms.

Indo fuck-16

The stem of fuccant is an English word used as Latin: English medieval Latin has many examples of writers using English words when they did not know the Latin word: "workmannus" is an example.

In the Middle English of this poem, the term wife was still used generically for "woman".

Deciphering the phrase "gxddbou xxkxzt pg ifmk", here by replacing each letter by the previous letter in alphabetical order, as the English alphabet was then, yields the macaronic non sunt in coeli, quia fuccant vvivys of heli, which translated means, "They are not in heaven, because they fuck the women of Ely".

it is uncertain to what extent the word fuck was considered acceptable at the time.

There is a theory that fuck is most likely derived from Flemish, German, or Dutch roots, and is probably not derived from an Old English root.

There may be a kinship with the Latin futuere (futuo), a verb with almost exactly the same meaning as the English verb "to fuck".

An earlier name, that of John le Fucker recorded in 1278, has been the subject of debate, but is thought by many philologists to have had some separate and non-sexual origin.

Otherwise, the usually accepted first known occurrence of the word is found in code in a poem in a mixture of Latin and English composed in the 15th century.

Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions.