In their times of need, even soldiers from the military garrisons abandoned their barracks and sought refuge in Indian towns.Indians always took them in and fed and housed them for weeks and even months at a time.If ever a group of people was so incapable of living independently as to justify the enslavement of others more capable, it was these French trespassers.

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After all, they were sworn to friendship through the calumet.

The exchange of gifts was not entirely one directional.

As the French expanded their base of control, some Indian Nations simply packed up and moved, not wanting even to be near the French and their strange religion and habits.

But dislocated Indians had to live somewhere, and they invariably wound up in the proximity of other Indian communities, threatening the resources of the people who were already there.

He also talks about “,” areas of the country where large numbers of enslaved Africans had lived in the midst of a surrounding sea of Europeans and Native Americans.

After the Civil War they gradually intermixed with the surrounding peoples creating enclaves of individuals of what Frazier calls “.” He identifies Ahoskie, North Carolina and Mahwah, New York as just two examples.

Iberville, commandant of the newly constructed fort, declared friendly intentions of the French by smoking the ceremonial calumet with the visiting dignitaries.

For Indians, this ceremonial gesture was as serious as business ever gets: Smoking the pipe represents a sacred trust between the two groups of people, that members of each group are bound to help members of the other under any circumstance. Even though six outposts were established within the first few years, few “settlers” were willing or able to do even the minimal amount of work required to produce their own food.

In coastal South Carolina, there are the Gullah people, and in coastal Georgia the Geechies.

(.) The Gullah are said to be descended from the Gola people of Angola, and the Geechies from the Gidzi people of Sierra Leone. The French colonizers of Louisiana were virtually all male.

Indians watched cautiously from a distance, out of sight of the intruders.