Celestial mechanics, the science of the motion of planets and other solid objects within the solar system, was the first testing ground for Newton’s laws of motion and thereby helped to establish the fundamental principles of classical (that is, pre-20th-century) physics.

Astrophysics, the study of the physical properties of celestial bodies, arose during the 19th century and is closely connected with the determination of the chemical composition of those bodies.

Greek philosophy answered these questions in terms that provided the framework for science for approximately 2,000 years.

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The mass of observations they collected and their mathematical methods were important contributions to the later flowering of astronomy among the Greeks.

The ) were responsible for one of the first Greek astronomical theories.

The Aristotelian cosmos was like an onion consisting of a series of some 55 spheres nested about Earth, which was fixed at the centre.

In order to unify the system, Aristotle added spheres in order to “unroll” the motions of a given planet so that they would not be transmitted to the next inner planet.

In the 20th century physics and astronomy became more intimately linked through cosmological theories, especially those based on the theory of relativity.

( Physical science, like all the natural sciences, is concerned with describing and relating to one another those experiences of the surrounding world that are shared by different observers and whose description can be agreed upon.

Believing that the order of the cosmos is fundamentally mathematical, they held that it is possible to discover the harmonies of the universe by contemplating the regular motions of the circular motion.

That is to say, he urged them to develop predictively accurate theories using only combinations of uniform circular motion.

Chemists tend to be more interested in the specific properties of different elements and compounds, whereas physicists are concerned with general properties shared by all matter.

( chemistry: The history of chemistry.)Astronomy is the science of the entire universe beyond Earth; it includes Earth’s gross physical properties, such as its mass and rotation, insofar as they interact with other bodies in the solar system.

This calendar played an important role in the history of astronomy, allowing astronomers to calculate the number of days between any two sets of observations.