Other thinkers, also commonly thought of as Eleatics, include: Zeno of Elea, Melissus of Samos, and (more controversially) Xenophanes of Colophon. The narrative setting describes a young Socrates (about 20) conversing with Parmenides, who is explicitly described as being “about 65.” Since Socrates was born c. Plato is not necessarily a reliable historical source.

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The chariot is drawn by mares, steered by the Daughters of the Sun (the Heliades), who began their journey at the House of Night.

The party eventually arrives at two tightly-locked, bronze-fitted gates—the Gates of Night and Day.

This is due entirely to Sextus Empiricus, who quoted Lines 1-30 of the after line 1.30 with the lines currently assigned to C/DK 7.2-7, as if these immediately followed.

Diels-Kranz separated Sextus’ quotation into distinct fragments (1 and 7) and added Simplicius’ lines to the end of C/DK 1.

The opens mid-action, with a first-person account of an unnamed youth (generally taken to be Parmenides himself) traveling along a divine path to meet a didactic (also unnamed) goddess.

The youth describes himself riding in a chariot with fire-blazing wheels turning on pipe-whistling axles, which seems to be traversing the heavens.

From the House of Night—far below the center of the Earth—the Heliades would follow an ascending arc to the eastern edge of the Earth, where the sun/moon rise.

The journey would then continue following the ecliptic pathway upwards across the heavens to apogee, and then descend towards sunset in the West.

Although there are many important philological and philosophical questions surrounding Parmenides’ poem, ) of Ascea, Italy. E., and thus Parmenides was of Ionian stock (1.167.3). The linear order of the three main extant sections is certain, and the assignment of particular fragments (and internal lines) to each section is generally well-supported.